Implicit accounts work similarly to Bitcoin/Ethereum accounts.
- They allow you to reserve an account ID before it's created by generating a ED25519 key-pair locally.
- This key-pair has a public key that maps to the account ID.
- The account ID is a lowercase hex representation of the public key.
- An ED25519 Public key contains 32 bytes that maps to 64 characters account ID.
- The corresponding secret key allows you to sign transactions on behalf of this account once it's created on chain.
Creating an account locally
For a purpose of this demo, we'll use the
Generating a key-pair first
near generate-key tmp1
Generated key pair with ed25519:BGCCDDHfysuuVnaNVtEhhqeT4k9Muyem3Kpgq2U1m9HX public key
It generates a key-pair for
tmp1 account ID. The new public key is
NEAR's string representation of a public key is
- Curve is either
secp256k1. For implicit accounts we only support
- Data is a base58 encoding of the public key. For
ed25519it contains 32 bytes.
This command generated a key-pair locally and stored it locally at:
Viewing the key-pair
Run this command to print the content of the key-pair file:
As you can see, it's a valid json-file and public key matches the one we generated.
private_key is a secret/private key of the key pair that can be used to sign transactions with the corresponding public key.
Converting a public key to an account ID.
Let's convert a public key from NEAR string representation
The easiest way is to use
near-cli with interactive console
2) Store your base58 public key to a local constant:
const pk58 = 'ed25519:BGCCDDHfysuuVnaNVtEhhqeT4k9Muyem3Kpgq2U1m9HX'
3) Now let's parse the public key and convert it to the hex in one line:
The output string is the account ID in hex (without
Now the new account ID is
4) We can now give this account ID to someone and ask them to transfer tokens.
Moving the temporary key-pair
Finally, we need to move
tmp1.json key-pair to the real account ID, so that
near-cli can use it to sign transactions.
Let's first export our account ID to a bash env variable:
Now we can move the
mv ~/.near-credentials/betanet/tmp1.json ~/.near-credentials/betanet/$ACCOUNT.json
.json key-pair file still contains the
"account_id":"tmp1", it's okay. Because
near-cli doesn't care.
Assuming you've received tokens on your new account, you can transfer from it using the following command:
near $ACCOUNT <receiver> <amount>
You can also replace
$ACCOUNT with your actual account ID, e.g.
near send 98793cd91a3f870fb126f66285808c7e094afcfc4eda8a970f6648cdf0dbd6de <receiver> <amount>
Transferring to the implicit account
Let's say someone gives you their account ID
0861ea8ddd696525696ccf3148dd706c4fda981c64d8a597490472594400c223. You can just transfer to it by running:
near send <your_account_id> 0861ea8ddd696525696ccf3148dd706c4fda981c64d8a597490472594400c223 <amount>
BONUS: Converting public key using python (for learning purposes)
For this flow we'll use
python3 (with version
You can install this library with
pip3 install --user base58
Start python3 interpreter:
The first thing is to get the data part from the public key (without
ed25519: prefix). Let's store it in a variable
pk58 = 'BGCCDDHfysuuVnaNVtEhhqeT4k9Muyem3Kpgq2U1m9HX'
Now let's import base58:
Finally, let's convert our base58 public key representation to bytes and then to hex:
This gives us the same account ID as
near-cli, so this is encouraging.
Note: The default network for
testnet. If you would like to change this to
betanet, please see
near-cli network selection for instructions.