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Building a Meta Transaction Relayer with NextJS

This guide will walk you through the steps required to construct a meta transaction relayer using NextJS 13.


This guide was originally created by @microchipgnu and can be found in hackmd.

Configuring the Environment

Before we begin, it’s crucial to configure our environment correctly. We need to set some environment variables. This is done in the .env file at the root of your project.


The NEXT_PUBLIC_RELAYER_ACCOUNT_ID is your public relayer account identifier and the RELAYER_ACCOUNT_PRIVATE_KEY is your relayer account’s private key.

API Route Creation

The next step is creating the API route. For this, we need to take the following actions:

  1. Navigate to the ./src/app/api/ directory
  2. Inside the api directory, create a new folder called relayer
  3. Inside the relayer folder, create a new file named route.ts

Now, let’s fill route.ts with the following code:

import { submitTransaction } from "@/utils/near/meta-transactions";
import { SCHEMA } from "@/utils/near/types/schema";
import { SignedDelegate } from "@near-js/transactions";
import { deserialize } from "borsh";
import { NextResponse } from "next/server";

export async function POST(req: Request) {
const body = await req.json();
const { delegated, network } = body;

const deserializeDelegate = deserialize(
Buffer.from(new Uint8Array(delegated))

const result = await submitTransaction({
delegate: deserializeDelegate,

return NextResponse.json(
{ result },
status: 200,
headers: {
"content-type": "application/json",

This script is responsible for receiving a delegated transaction, deserializing it, and submitting the transaction using the submitTransaction utility.

Client Code Execution

The client code is divided into two parts. The first part signs a delegated transaction, and the second part submits the transaction through the relayer.

Signing a Delegated Transaction

We use the following code snippet to sign a delegated transaction:

import { getKeys } from "@near-js/biometric-ed25519";
import { InMemoryKeyStore } from "@near-js/keystores";
import { actionCreators } from "@near-js/transactions";
import BN from "bn.js";
import { connect } from "./meta-transactions";

export const signDelegatedTransaction = async ({
}: {
network: string;
signer: string;
privateKey: string;
transaction: {
methodName: string;
args: any;
gas: string | number;
deposit: string | number;
contractAddress: string;
}) => {
const keyStore = new InMemoryKeyStore();

// TODO: Connect the user

const signerAccount = await connect(signer, keyStore, network);

const action = actionCreators.functionCall(
new BN(transaction.gas),
new BN(transaction.deposit)

const delegate = await signerAccount.signedDelegate({
actions: [action],
blockHeightTtl: 600,
receiverId: contractAddress,

return delegate;

This function receives several parameters, including network, signer, privateKey, transaction, and contractAddress. It generates a delegate using the signedDelegate method, which is later used to submit the transaction.

Submitting the Transaction via the Relayer

After signing the delegated transaction, we use the following code snippet to submit the transaction through the relayer:

await fetch("/api/internal/near/submit-meta-transaction", {
body: JSON.stringify({
delegated: Array.from(encodeSignedDelegate(delegated)),
network: "testnet",
headers: {},
method: "POST",

The fetch function sends a POST request to the API route we created earlier. The body of this request includes the delegated transaction and the network.